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Statistical Analysis of the Risk Factors for Single Toe Amputation Patients in Wound Healing
J Korean Foot Ankle Soc 2019;23:18-23
Published online March 15, 2019;
© 2019 Korean Foot and Ankle Society

Hyung-Jin Chung, Su-Young Bae, Woo-Jin Shina, Jun-Ho Lee

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyung-Jin Chung, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital, 1342 Dongil-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01757, Korea, Tel: 82-2-950-1399, Fax: 82-2-950-1398, E-mail:
Received February 1, 2019; Revised March 6, 2019; Accepted March 6, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: This study compared and analyzed the risk factors that affect a wound healing group and healing failure group.
Materials and Methods: From 2010 to 2018, 39 patients who had suffered a single toe amputation were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups (wound healing group and healing failure group - within at least 3 months following the amputation). Regarding the possible risk factors, age, gender, Wagner and Brodsky classifications, duration of diabetes mellitus, whether the patient had peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) or cardiovascular disease, body mass index, HbA1c, total cholesterol, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), smoking, and alcohol were investigated.
Results: The mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 140 months in the healing group and 227 months in the healing failure group, and the duration of diabetes was significantly longer in the failure group (p=0.009). A significant difference in eGFR was observed between the two groups (59.17 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the healing group and 31.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the failure group) (p=0.022). Sixteen patients with PAOD were found, all 10 patients in the healing failure group were PAOD patients.
Conclusion: To reduce the additional complications in single toe amputation patients, the underlying disease and appropriate treatment are the most important factors. In addition, a more proximal level of amputation also should be considered in cases of patients with PAOD, high BUN and low eGFR, and patients with long-term diabetes.
Keywords : Toe amputation, Diabetes mellitus, Arterial occlusive disease

March 2019, 23 (1)