search for


Results in Operative Treatment of Open Calcaneal Fracture
J Korean Foot Ankle Soc 2021;25:133-140
Published online September 15, 2021;
© 2021 Korean Foot and Ankle Society

Ba Rom Kim, Jun Young Lee, Donghyuk Cha

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea
Correspondence to: Jun Young Lee
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chosun University Hospital, 365 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 61453, Korea
Tel: 82-62-220-3147, Fax: 82-62-226-3379, E-mail:

This article was published as a dissertation of Ba Rom Kim’s master’s degree at Chosun University Graduate School.
Received June 23, 2021; Revised August 5, 2021; Accepted August 9, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: This paper reports the surgical treatment results of open calcaneal fractures performed at the author’s clinics focusing on open calcaneal fractures to help understand the appropriate treatment and realistic outcomes.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 22 cases out of 30 patients who visited the hospital from February 2009 to December 2019 and were followed up for more than one year. In open fractures, the fracture was classified using the Gustilo-Anderson classification and was evaluated using the soft tissue status at the time of visit. Intra-articular calcaneal fractures were classified using Sanders classification. The radiological parameters were measured for the Böhler angle, Gissane angle, calcaneal length, height, and width before and after surgery, and at the last follow-up. The clinical outcomes were evaluated using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale and investigated complications. In addition, statistical analysis of the incidence and associated factors of posttraumatic arthritis was conducted.
Results: In all cases, the surgical treatment was performed by minimally invasive surgery. The AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scale conducted for a clinical evaluation of the final follow-up was averaged 72.5 points. In the classification of open fractures, the Gustilo-Anderson classification type IIIA was the most common, and the Sanders type III was the most common. Of the 22 cases after surgery, 15 cases had complications, 11 cases had posttraumatic arthritis, eight cases had an infection, and 4 cases had both complications. Only the Sanders classification showed a statistically significant correlation with the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (p-value 0.032).
Conclusion: In treating open calcaneal fractures, internal fixation by a minimally invasive approach showed relatively satisfactory results. However, follow-up research will be needed, including the results of a long-term follow-up through a large number of cases and comparative studies with other surgical methods.
Keywords : Calcaneus, Fractures, Open, Surgical procedure